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BIOLOGICAL CONTROL :


Bird Hide in Bio Control Area

Bio Control Valley at MLC

Once Conservancy status has been attained, you can become involved in Biological Control Programmes which will have a positively negative impact on the local alien plant population which should benefit your positive image with your local community.

Remember: The end goal of any Landfill Conservancy Project should be to introduce green lungs into urban areas and start to remove the negative perception of local landfills - "Not in my back yard!!"

 

Below is a table from the ARC-PLANT PROTECTION RESEARCH INSTITUTE (Website: http://www.arc.agric.za/) which you could use as a basic guideline.

Please contact them directly for more information or for assistance..

1974-1985

Weed

Degree of Control*

Biocontrol Agents

Year of Release

Estab-
lished

Main Feeding Guild

Damage to weed*

ARACEAE

Pistia stratiotes
(water lettuce/ waterslaai)

Complete

Neohydronomus affinis
(Curculionidae)

1985

Yes

Leaf & stem borer

Considerable

ASTERACEAE

Ageratina adenophora
(crofton weed)

 

Negligible

 

Phaeoramularia sp. (Hyphomycetes, Moniliales)

1987

Yes

Causes leaf spots

Moderate

Procecidochares utilis
(Tephritidae)

1984 Yes Stem galler Moderate

Ageratina riparia
(mistflower/ misblom)

Complete

Entyloma ageratinae
(Basidiomycetes, Ustilaginales)

1989

Yes

Causes leaf necrosis

Considerable

RELEASED IN MARAINNHILL CONSERVANCY IN 2004:

Chromolaena odorata
(triffid weed/ paraffienbos)

  

?

  
Calycomyza eupatorivora (Agromyzidae) 2003 Yes Leaf miner Moderate

Pareuchaetes aurata aurata
(Arctiidae)

1990

No

Leaf chewer

-

Pareuchaetes insulata
(Arctiidae)

1998

Yes

Leaf chewer

Considerable

Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata
(Arctiidae)

2001

No

Leaf chewer

-

Cirsium vulgare
(spear thistle/ speerdissel)

 

Negligible

 

Rhinocyllus conicus
(Curculionidae)

1984-1986

Yes

Seed feeder

Moderate

Urophora stylata
(Tephritidae)

1984-1990

?

Seed feeder

?

Silybum marianum
(milk thistle)

?

Rhinocyllus conicus
(Curculionidae)

1985

?

Seed feeder

?

AZOLLACEAE

Azolla filiculoides
(red water fern/ rooiwatervaring)

Complete

Stenopelmus rufinasus
(Curculionidae)

1997

Yes

Leaf chewer

Extensive

BIGNONIACEAE

Macfadyena unguis-cati
(cat's claw creeper/ katteklouranker)

  

 

Negligible

   
Carvalhotingis hollandi (Tingidae) 2007 ? Leaf sucker ?
Carvalhotingis visenda (Tingidae) 2007 ? Leaf sucker ?

Charidotis auroguttata
(Chrysomelidae)

1999

Yes

leaf chewer

?

Hylaeogena jureceki  (Buprestidae)  2007  Yes

 leaf miner

 ?

CACTACEAE

Cereus jamacaru
(queen of the night/ nagblom)

 

Substantial

 

Alcidion cereicola
(Cerambycidae)

1990

Yes

stem borer

Considerable

Hypogeococcus pungens(Pseudococcidae)

Extend

Yes

sap sucker

Extensive

Harrisia martinii
(moon cactus/ toukaktus)

 

Complete

 

Alcidion cereicola
(Cerambycidae)

1990

Yes

stem borer

Considerable

Hypogeococcus pungens(Pseudococcidae)

1983

Yes

sap sucker

Extensive

Opuntia aurantiaca
(jointed cactus/ litjieskaktus)

    

Substantial

    

Cactoblastis cactorum
(Pyralidae)

Extend

Yes

stem borer

Moderate

Dactylopius austrinus
(Dactylopiidae)

1935

Yes

sap sucker

Extensive

Mimorista pulchellalis
(Pyralidae)

1979

No

stem borer

None

Nanaia sp.
(Pyralidae)

1983

No

stem borer

None

Tucumania tapiacola
(Pyralidae)

1976,1982

No

stem borer

None

Opuntia exaltata
(long spine cactus/ langdoringkaktus)

?

Cactoblastis cactorum
(Pyralidae)

Extend

Yes

stem borer

?

Opuntia ficus-indica
(mission prickly pear/ boereturksvy)

   

Substantial

   

Archlagocheirus funestus
(Cerambycidae)

1943

Yes

stem borer

Overall trivial, but moderate where present

Cactoblastis cactorum
(Pyralidae)

1933

Yes

stem borer

Extensive

Dactylopius opuntiae
(Dactylopiidae)

1938

Yes

sap sucker

Extensive

Metamasius spinolae
(Curculionidae)

1948

Yes

stem borer

Extensive

(Cylindr)opuntia fulgida (chain-fruit cholla/ kettingvrugkaktus)

 
Substantial

Dactylopius tomentosus(imbricata biotype)
(Dactylopiidae)

1970

Yes

sap sucker

Trivial

Dactylopius tomentosus (cholla biotype) (Dactylopiidae)

2008 Yes sap sucker Extensive

(Cylindr)opuntia imbricata (imbricate prickly pear/ kabelturksvy)

 

Substantial

 

Dactylopius tomentosus (imbricata biotype)
(Dactylopiidae)

1970

Yes

sap sucker

Considerable

Metamasius spinolae
(Curculionidae)

1974

No

stem borer

None

Opuntia leptocaulis

Complete

Dactylopius tomentosus
(Dactylopiidae)

1977

Yes

sap sucker

Extensive

Opuntia lindheimeri
(small round-leaved prickly pear/ klein rondblaarturksvy)

 

Substantial

 

Dactylopius opuntiae
(Dactylopiidae)

1938

Yes

sap sucker

Considerable

Cactoblastis cactorum
(Pyralidae)

1938

Yes

stem borer

Extensive

Opuntia monacantha
(smooth/ drooping prickly pear/ luisiesturksvy)

  

Substantial

  

Cactoblastis cactorum
(Pyralidae)

Extend

Yes

stem borer

Considerable

Dactylopius ceylonicus
(Dactylopiidae)

1913

Yes

sap sucker

Extensive

Dactylopius opuntiae
(Dactylopiidae)

Extend

Yes

sap sucker

Extensive

Opuntia salmiana

Substantial

Cactoblastis cactorum
(Pyralidae)

Extend

Yes

stem borer

Considerable

Opuntia spinulifera (saucepan cactus/ groot rondeblaarturksvy)

?

Cactoblastis cactorum
(Pyralidae)

Extend

Yes

stem borer

?

Opuntia stricta
(Australian pest pear/ suurturksvy)

 

Substantial

 

Cactoblastis cactorum
(Pyralidae)

1980s

Yes

stem borer

Extensive

Dactylopius opuntiae
(Australian biotype)
(Dactylopiidae)

1997

Yes

sap sucker

Extensive

Pereskia aculeata
(Barbados gooseberry/ pereskia)

Negligible

Phenrica guerini
(Chrysomelidae)

1991, 1995

Yes

leaf chewer

Trivial

CAESALPINIACEAE

Caesalpinia decapetala
(Mauritius thorn/ kraaldoring)

Negligible

Sulcobruchus subsuturalis
(Bruchidae)

1999

Yes

seed feeder

Trivial

CLUSIACEAE

Hypericum perforatum
(St John's wort/ Johanneskruid))

     

Complete

     

Agrilus hyperici
(Buprestidae)

1974-1979

No

root borer

None

Aplocera efformata
(Geometridae)

1983

No

leaf chewer

None

Aphis chloris
(Aphididae)

1982

No

sap sucker

None

Chrysolina hyperici
(Chrysomelidae)

1960-1973

No

leaf chewer

None

Chrysolina quadrigemina
(Chrysomelidae)

1960-1962

Yes

leaf chewer

Extensive

Zeuxidiplosis giardi
(Cecidomyiidae)

1972

Yes

shoot-tip galler

Moderate

CONVOLVULACEAE

Convolvulus arvensis
(field bindweed/ akkerwinde)

None

Aceria malherbae
(Eriophyidae)

1994

No

Leaf galler

(site destroyed)

HALORAGACEAE

Myriophyllum aquaticum
(parrot's feather/ waterduisendblaar)

Substantial

Lysathia sp.
(Chrysolmelidae)

1994

Yes

Leaf chewer

Extensive

MIMOSACEAE

Acacia baileyana (Bailey's wattle/ Bailey-se-wattel) Negligible Melanterius maculatus (Curculionidae) 2006 Yes Seed feeder  Moderate
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Acacia cyclops
(red eye/ rooikrans)

 

Substantial

 

Dasineura dielsi
(Cecidomyiidae)

2001

Yes

Flower galler

Extensive

Melanterius servulus (Type A)
(Curculionidae)

1994

Yes

Seed feeder

Considerable

Acacia dealbata
(silver wattle/ silwerwattel)

Negligible

Melanterius maculatus
(Curculionidae)

1994, 1998

Yes

Seed feeder

Moderate

Acacia decurrens
(green wattle/ groenwattel)

Negligible

Melanterius maculatus
(Curculionidae)

2001

Yes

Seed feeder

Moderate

Acacia longifolia
(long-leaved wattle/ langblaarwattel)

 

Substantial

 

Melanterius ventralis

1985

Yes

Seed feeder

Extensive

Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae
(Pteromalidae)

1982

Yes

Bud galler

Extensive

Acacia mearnsii
(black wattle/ swartwattel)

?

Dasineura rubiformis (Cecidomyiidae) 2001 Yes Flower galler Extensive (but still localized)

Melanterius maculatus
(Curculionidae)

1995/96

Yes

Seed feeder

Moderate

Acacia melanoxylon
(Australian blackwood/ Australiese swarthout)

Substantial

Melanterius acaciae
(Curculionidae)

1986

Yes

Seed feeder

Considerable/ Extensive

Acacia podalyriifolia (pearl acacia/ vaalmimosa) ? Melanterius maculatus (Curculionidae) 2008 ? Seed feeder ?
abcdefg

Acacia pycnantha
(golden wattle/ gouewattel)

Substantial

Melanterius maculatus (Curculionidae) 2006 Yes Seed feeder Moderate

Trichilogaster signiventris(Pteromalidae)

1987

Yes

Bud galler

Extensive

Acacia saligna
(Port Jackson willow/ Port Jackson)

 

Substantial

 

Melanterius compactus
(Curculionidae)

2001

Yes

Seed feeder

Considerable

Uromycladium tepperianum
(Basidiomycetes, Uredinales)

1987

Yes

Galler of any young tissue

Extensive

Leucaena leucocephala
(leucaena/ reuse wattel)

Negligible

Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus
(Bruchidae)

1999

Yes

Seed feeder

Trivial

Paraserianthes lophantha
(stink bean/ stinkboon)

Substantial

Melanterius servulus (Type B)

1989

Yes

Seed feeder

Considerable

Prosopis species
(mesquite/ prosopis)

  

Negligible

  

Algarobius bottimeri
(Bruchidae)

1990

?

Seed feeder

?

Algarobius prosopis
(Bruchidae)

1987

Yes

Seed feeder

Considerable

Neltumius arizonensis
(Bruchidae)

1993

Yes

Seed feeder

?

MYRTACEAE

Leptospermum laevigatum
(Australian myrtle Australiese mirt)

 

?

 

Parectopa thalassias
(Gracillariidae)

1996

Yes

Leaf miner

Considerable

Dasineura sp.
(Cecidomyiidae)

1994

Yes

Bud galler

Considerable

PAPILIONACEAE

Sesbania punicea
(red sesbania/ rooi sesbania)

  

Complete

  

Neodiplogrammus quadrivittatus
(Curculionidae)

1984

Yes

Stem borer

Extensive

Rhyssomatus marginatus
(Curculionidae)

1984

Yes

Seed feeder

Extensive

Trichapion lativentre
(Apionidae)

1970s

Yes

Flowerbud feeder

Extensive

PONTEDERIACEAE

Eichhornia crassipes
(water hyacinth/ waterhiasint)

     

Substantial

     

Cercospora rodmanii
(Hyphomycetes, Moniliales)

1992

Yes

Causes leaf spots

Considerable

Eccritotarsus catarinensis
(Miridae)

1996

Yes

Sap sucker

Considerable

Neochetina bruchi
(Curculionidae)

1990, 1996

Yes

Stem borer

Considerable

Neochetina eichhorniae
(Curculionidae)

Yes

Stem borer

Considerable  

Niphograpta albiguttalis
(Pyralidae)

1990

Yes

Petiole borer

Considerable

Orthogalumna terebrantis
(Galumnidae)

1989

Yes

Leaf miner

Considerable

PROTEACEAE

Hakea gibbosa
(rock hakea/ harige hakea)

 

Negligible

 

Aphanasium australe
(Cerambycidae)

2001

Yes

Stem borer

?

Erytenna consputa
(Curculionidae)

1975

Yes

Seed feeder
(immature seeds)

Trivial

Hakea sericea
(silky hakea/ syerige hakea)

    

Substantial

    

Aphanasium australe
(Cerambycidae)

2001

Yes

Stem borer

?

Carposina autologa
(Carposinidae)

1970, 1982

Yes

Seed feeder

Considerable

Cydmaea binotata
(Curculionidae)

1979

Yes

Leaf & shoot borer

Trivial

Dicomada rufa (Curculionidae) 2006 ? Flowerbud feeder ?

Erytenna consputa
(Curculionidae)

1970, 1974

Yes

Seed feeder (immature seeds)

Extensive

SALVINIACEAE

Salvinia molesta
(water fern/ watervaring)

Complete

Cyrtobagous salviniae
(Curculionidae)

1985

Yes

Stem borer

Extensive

SOLANACEAE

Solanum elaeagnifolium
(silverleaf nightshade/ satansbos)

   

Substantial

   

Frumenta nephelomicta
(Gelechiidae)

1979,1985,1999

No

Fruit galler

None

Frumenta sp. nov.
(Gelechiidae)

1989

No

Stem & fruit galler

None

Leptinotarsa defecta
(Chrysomelidae)

1992

Yes

Leaf chewer

Moderate where present

Leptinotarsa texana
(Chrysomelidae)

1992

Yes

Leaf chewer

Extensive

Solanum mauritianum
(bugweed/ luisboom)

Negligible

Gargaphia decoris
(Tingidae)

1999

Yes

Sap sucker

Trivial

Solanum sysimbrifolium
(wild tomato/ wildetamatie)

Substantial

Gratiana spadicea
(Chrysomelidae)

1994

Yes

Leaf chewer

Extensive

VERBENACEAE

Lantana camara
(lantana)

                       

Substantial

                       

Alagoasa parana
(Chrysomelidae)

1985

No

Leaf miner

None

Autoplusia illustrata
(Noctuidae)

1978,1984

No

Leaf chewer

None

Calycomyza lantanae
(Agromyzidae)

1982

Yes

Leaf miner

Moderate

Coelocephalapion camarae (Apionidae) 2007 Yes Petiole galler ?

Epinotia lantana (Tortricidae)

pre-1961, 1984 Yes Flower miner Trivial

Eutreta xanthochaeta
(Tephritidae)

1983

No

Stem galler

None

Falconia intermedia
(Miridae)

1999

Yes

Sap sucker

Moderate

Hypena laceratalis
(Noctuidae)

Native

Yes

Leaf chewer

Trivial

Lantanophaga pusillidactyla
(Pterophoridae)

<1961

Yes

Flower feeder

Trivial

Leptobyrsa decora
(Tingidae)

1972-1981

No

Sap sucker

None

Longitarsus bethae (Chrysomelidae) 2007 ? Root feeder ?

Mycovellosiella lantanae var. lantanae
(Hyphomycetes, Mycosphaerellales)

2002

Yes

Leaf spot fungus

Moderate

Neogalea sunia
(Noctuidae)

1962, 1969

No

Leaf chewer

None

Octotoma championi
(Chrysomelidae)

1978
1995

No

Leaf miner

None

Octotoma scabripennis
(Chrysomelidae)

1971-1975

Yes

Leaf miner

Considerable

Ophiomyia camarae
(Agromyzidae)

2001

Yes

Leaf miner

Considerable

Ophiomyia lantanae
(Agromyzidae)

<1961

Yes

Seed feeder

Moderate

Plagiohammus spinipennis
(Cerambycidae)

1973

No

Stem borer

None

Salbia haemorrhoidalis
(Pyralidae)

1962

Yes

Leaf chewer

Trivial

Teleonemia elata
(Tingidae)

1972

No

Sap sucker

None

Teleonemia scrupulosa
(Tingidae)

1961-1989

Yes

Sap sucker

Considerable

Uroplata girardi
(Chrysomelidae)

1974,1983

Yes

Leaf miner

Considerable

Uroplata lantanae
(Chrysomelidae)

1984

No

Leaf miner

None

Uroplata fulvopustulata
(Chrysomelidae)

1978

No

Leaf miner

None

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